Objective: To examine the impact of work and volunteer hours on 4 health issues among undergraduate college students.Participants: Full-time undergraduate students (N= 70,068) enrolled at 129 institutions who participated in the Spring 2011 American College Health Association–National College Health Assessment II survey.Methods: Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to examine work and volunteer hour impact on depression, feelings of being overwhelmed, sleep, and physical activity.Results: The impact of work and volunteer hours was inconsistent among the health outcomes. Increased work hours tended to negatively affect sleep and increase feelings of being overwhelmed. Students who volunteered were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines, and those who volunteered 1 to 9 hours per week reported less depression.Conclusions: College health professionals should consider integrating discussion of students' employment and volunteering and their intersection with health outcomes into clinical visits, programming, and other services.
This study extends prior college student employment research by examining health as an outcome variable. Using 2-wave data from a sample of 216 student workers, this study examined work–school conflict as a predictor of psychological and physical health among working college students. Additionally, 3 resource-providing variables—work–school facilitation, supervisor work–school support, and personal fulfillment at work—were tested for buffering effects in the relation between work–school conflict and health. Results demonstrated that work–school conflict was a significant predictor of psychological health but not physical health. All 3 resource-providing variables ameliorated the negative relation between work–school conflict and psychological health, whereas only personal fulfillment weakened the positive relation between work–school conflict and physical symptoms. These findings suggest the benefits of work–school facilitation, supervisor work–school support, and personal fulfillment in minimizing the detrimental effects of work–school conflict on health outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications for researchers, educational institutions, and organizations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Given that 74% of undergraduates work an average of 25.5 hours per week while going to school, we know surprisingly little about how off-campus employment affects undergraduates and to what extent its impact varies by the number of hours worked. Our survey of undergraduates at a small liberal arts college found that the academic performance of students who worked off-campus was comparable to nonworkers. Notably, the academic performance (greater hours studied and higher grades) of students who worked 10-19 hours per week was superior to all other students, working and non-working. We suggest that the increase in performance is due to an optimal work-college balance that establishes structure and discipline not achieved by working too few or too many hours. Yet students must balance the benefits of organization and efficiency with increased stress and reduced time for socializing (noted among students working 10+ hours per week off-campus).
Most college students work to pay for school. It’s been that way for decades. But where earlier generations of young people could earn enough to cover tuition and other expenses, today’s students are taking out loans to make ends meet. And as the nation’s college students become a more varied bunch, the financial responsibilities they shoulder are increasingly numerous.
This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of student employment were determined using a job questionnaire. Data analyses revealed no significant difference in depression between working and non-working students; however, working students displayed more anxiety than non-working counterparts and reported more stress and fewer buffers. Unlike previous research, there was no difference in the grade point averages of working and non-working students, nor differences in perception of the problems and benefits of work.
Should depression be treated with drugs or therapy?
Depression is a potentially life-threatening disorder affecting millions of people across the globe. It is a huge burden to both the individual and society, costing over £9 billion in 2000 alone: the World Health Organisation (WHO) cited it as the third leading cause of global disability in 2004 (first in the developed world), and project it will be the leading cause by 2030. The serendipitous discovery of antidepressants has revolutionized both our understanding and management of depression: however, their efficacy in the treatment of depression has long been debated and recently been brought very much into the public limelight by a controversial publication by Kirsch, in which the role of placebo response in antidepressant efficacy trials is highlighted. Whilst antidepressants offer benefits in both the short and long term, important problems persist such as intolerability, delayed therapeutic onset, limited efficacy in milder depression and the existence of treatment-resistant depression.
The article discusses the use of music therapy for mental health and to treat stress, diseases and anxiety, referencing several studies on music therapy. An overview of music's physiological impact on the brain, including in regard to neurons' firing synchronously with music tempo, is provided. The impact that sound frequency has on psychology is discussed.
In the expanding literature on physical activity and mental health, researchers have addressed the effects of both single bouts and programs of physical activity. In addition, a wide variety of psychological outcomes have been studied, including effects on mood, self-esteem, cognitive functioning and decline, depression, and quality of life.
The article discusses a growing trend by teachers to integrate cellphones into classroom lessons. An increasing amount of teachers are lifting a classroom ban on cellphones to make them a part of lesson plans. The author provides examples of cellphone use in education, including the creation of web pages and Spanish conversation.
In an article condensed from the December 15, 2003, issue of The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, the writer considers the increasing use of cell phones in the classroom. Most commonly, the phone goes off and the student sorts through his or her backpack to find it and turn it off, before announcing an emergency and leaving the class to take the call. The professor and other members of the class are then left to recover and try to reconcentrate on the lesson. Teachers are now retaliating with their own strategies and punitive measures: Some take away the phones until class is finished, and others threaten to add time to the end of the class to make up for time lost to cell-phone interruptions. Although there may be no agreement over the issue of cell-phone policy, there is consensus that the marriage between college students and cell-phone technology is here to stay for both social and practical reasons.
Cell phones have become ubiquitous in society, but they are typically seen as a problem in the classroom. This study was designed to assess the perspective of students regarding the use of cell phones as academic tools in the classroom. I encouraged students to use their cell phones in an environmental issues course to find data and other information, which they then shared with the class. At the end of the semester, students voluntarily completed a survey detailing their perspectives. Students felt that cell phones helped their learning, encouraged their enjoyment of the class, improved their success in the course, marginally increased their attendance, and were not an important distraction. Cell phones can be seen as a tool for learning and explored as a means to help students access and take ownership of knowledge.
Although there have been many suggestions for incorporating cell phone use into classroom activities, there have been few suggestions for removing cell phone use from the classroom. This article presents an easy-to-implement method using positive reinforcement that effectively removes cell phones from the classroom in a way that is highly endorsed by students and that greatly fosters student engagement, class participation, and a focused and respectful classroom atmosphere. In a quasi-experiment, we found significant correlations between giving up cell phones and students’ test grades, overall grade point average (GPA), semester’s GPA, and attendance. Rate of improvement of higher and lower participators suggested that better students were more likely to give up their cell phones to earn an extra point toward their final course grade.
Research consistently demonstrates the active use of cell phones, whether talking or texting, to be distracting and contributes to diminished performance when multitasking (e.g., distracted driving or walking). Recent research also has indicated that simply the presence of a cell phone and what it might represent (i.e., social connections, broader social network, etc.) can be similarly distracting and have negative consequences in a social interaction. Results of two studies reported here provide further evidence that the 'mere presence' of a cell phone may be sufficiently distracting to produce diminished attention and deficits in task-performance, especially for tasks with greater attentional and cognitive demands. The implications for such an unintended negative consequence may be quite wide-ranging (e.g., productivity in school and the work place)
This study employed a survey to examine the perceptions of 92 preservice teachers enrolled at a small Midwestern liberal arts university regarding their support of the use of cell phones in the classroom, the benefits of specific cell phone features for school-related work, and the instructional benefits of and barriers to using cell phones in the classroom. The study also compared the perceptions of the preservice teachers classified as digital natives with those of the preservice teachers classified as digital immigrants (Prensky, 2001) to determine if there was a relationship between perceptions and age. Results from the analysis of the survey indicated that although most of the preservice teachers were unsure about allowing cell phones in the classroom, they indicated that the devices’ calculator, access to the Internet, and audio player features provided instructional benefits. In addition, more than half identified anywhere/anytime learning opportunities, increased student engagement, opportunities for differentiation of instruction, increased communication, and increased student motivation as benefits of using cell phones in the classroom. Their leading concerns included classroom disruptions and cheating. Pearson Chi Square tests found no relationship between preservice teachers’ perceptions and age. The results of this study have implications for teacher education programs that are interested in teaching/modeling the use of mobile technology in classroom instruction as well as bring your own device (BYOD) initiatives.
The article focuses on the advancement of telecommuting in the U.S. The authors mention that telecommuting, which is a work task usually performed at home, is vastly earning attention from policy makers and activists, as it is believed to reduce energy consumption and traffic congestion. They state that the trend is also perceived to improve employee productivity, decrease absenteeism and increase employee retention. However, despite the benefits it provide, telecommuting is not able to reduce work-family conflicts.
The article discusses telecommuting jobs in the U.S. after 2005, as well as the effects of telecommuting, including feelings of isolation and loss of productivity. The author suggests that companies provide socialization opportunities for telecommuters, that employees keep a designated home work space, and cites the article "10 Workplace Trends to Watch in 2012" on the website Entrepreneur.com, surveys in "Fortune" magazine, and data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
An interview is presented with Nicholas Bloom, a professor of economics at Stanford University. Bloom discusses his research on the Chinese Internet travel agency Ctrip which found that telecommuting employees were both more productive and less likely to leave their jobs. He states that telecommuting saved Ctrip $1900 per employee in costs for the nine months of the survey. Bloom acknowledges his study involved call center employees, work that can be easily done at home.
Telecommuting has been researched over the years and has been shown to have both positive and negative outcomes. This research paper will focus on the longitudinal outcomes of telecommuting. Data was collected through in depth interviews with individuals who telecommute and blogs on telecommuting. Our findings indicate although there are challenges for employees in creating boundaries between work and home when telecommuting; there are still benefits to be gained from this practice
Telework is an increasingly popular flexible working arrangement. The aim of this article is to describe the features that
characterize telework. The advantages and disadvantages of teleworking are outlined, as well as its effects on the health of the
worker. The method used was a literature review. The outputs of this search show that in general, empirical evidence favours a
positive association between telework and worker health. However, there are also negative impacts on health such as stress and depression. The overall conclusion is that telework is likely to yield more good than bad for individual health.
The article discusses the decision by the Internet company Yahoo! to ban telecommuting by its employees. Topics include the effectiveness of virtual offices and flexible work programs, accountability mechanisms to review work that employees complete at home, and methods of communication between home-based workers and their teams.
What is better - a digital camera or a traditional film camera?
Traditional, or film, cameras are expected to remain in the picture, at least marginally, for the foreseeable future. Even though digital cameras get more advertising, promotion and sales, camera manufacturers and those who teach photography insist that the film format will endure.
Interviews Eastman Kodak Co. senior engineer for mapping and remote sensing Donald L. Light on photogrammetry technology. Advantages of digital technology; Advantages of traditional film for photogrammetry; Perception on the future of traditional aerial film photography; Impact of high resolution satellites on digital airborne systems.
The investigative process of failure analysis relies heavily on visual observations, and photography is a key tool for documenting physical evidence and features. This article describes important factors in digital photography and lighting. It is adapted from the new ASM handbook volume 11, failure analysis and prevention.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a water + electrolyte solution versus plain water on changes in drinking behaviors, hydration status, and body temperatures during wildfire suppression. Conclusion.--. Supplementing water with electrolytes can reduce the amount of fluid necessary to consume and transport during extended activity. This can minimize carrying excessive weight, possibly reducing fatigue during extended exercise
Health care professionals advocate that athletes who are susceptible to exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs) should moderately increase their fluid and electrolyte intake by drinking sport drinks. Conclusions: At these volumes, ingestion of pickle juice and CHO-e drink did not cause substantial changes in plasma electrolyte concentrations, plasma osmolality, or plasma volume in rested, euhydrated men.
To stay hydrated, athletes must replace electrolytes like sodium and potassium that are lost in sweat. But many triathletes and runners prefer to eat their carbohydrates (like chewy bars) instead of gulping Gatorade or Cytomax, carb-loaded drinks with a hint of electrolytes. This long-distance set now has a new option that leaves carbohydrates out of the equation: electrolyte-drink tablets.
HIGH-CALORIE sports drinks can satisfy thirst, but they do little for the figure. They are ideal for athletes who do long or intense workouts, but can be counterproductive for people exercising to lose weight.
If you're grabbing a sports drink to replenish your electrolytes after exercise, you could actually be working against your workout. A CBC Marketplace investigation found that the vast majority of Canadians don't exercise hard enough to need the colourful drinks, and an average workout does not deplete the body enough to require additional energy and electrolytes.
Like many little athletes, my boys enjoy Gatorade, Powerade and all of those other brightly colored sports drinks. I don't. I have seen the commercials, so I gather that these drinks are designed to replenish electrolytes lost through sweat and that celebrity athletes drink them. Yet what kid actually needs 34 grams of sugar and a dose of chemical food dye in order to replenish after a one-hour sports game?
Is hospital care or at-home care better for patients?
The aim was to compare two different regimens for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, hospital-based care and hospital-based home care (HBHC), in terms of the child's metabolic control, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia, the disease's impact on family and the parents' health-related quality of life, one year after diagnosis. The results of this study one year after diagnosis support the safety and feasibility of HBHC when a child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of hospital admissions, from the perspectives of patients with palliative care needs. Conclusion: This research contributes to a greater understanding of the benefits associated with hospitalization for patients with palliative care needs. The findings suggest that such benefits extend beyond the treatment patients receive and challenge current assumptions regarding the role of the acute hospital in palliative care.
Under financial pressure hospitals are discharging patients "quicker and sicker" into the care of family members or professional home care attendants. Miniaturized or simplified ventilators, drug and nutrition infusion devices, various monitors, and other hospital equipment are making this shift from hospital to home feasible, even for seriously dependent patients. How desirable is this shift?
Objective: To compare a shortened hospital stay with midwife visits at home to usual hospital care after delivery. Conclusion: In low risk pregnancies, early discharge from hospital and midwife visits at home after delivery is an acceptable alternative to a longer duration of care in hospital.
Summary: to compare experiences with early labour assessment and support at home vs. by telephone. However, women's affective experiences did not differ. Early labour nursing care provided at home is associated with a more positive experience of early labour compared to telephone support.
High-tech home care thus simultaneously provides the opportunity for love and the means of exploitation. To maximize the former and minimize the latter, we must begin to think more critically about this growing phenomenon. Instead of allowing the technology to develop out of its own internal dynamics or, worse still, according to the dictates of the profit motive, we must begin to ask how high-tech home care might best serve human needs and the needs of a compassionate but prudent society.
The authors convey their thoughts about intensive home health care services as an alternative to hospitalization around the world. Topics covered include conditions that appear amenable to such services as a substitute for hospitalization including skin or soft-tissue infections, costs of care for patients in the Healthcare at Home program, and the growth of the skilled-nursing workforce.